The 6 Types of Argumentative Texts

Spencer holds a bachelor’s of literature and a bachelor’s of environmental studies from the University of California Santa Cruz. At this step, the writer can also ensure the writing flows, improve transitions, change repetitious language, and improve some vocabulary choices, if appropriate. Having a classmate, colleague, friend, or family member proofread one’s work is also useful as it gives the writer a different perspective on their work. Grammarly finds all of your writing mistakes for you so you can stay focused on what’s important. It even checks your tone and clarity to make sure your true argument always shines through and comes across as intended. See how Grammarly can help your next writing project by downloading it now.

  • The thesis itself should be the one takeaway you want your readers to leave with.
  • Sadly, you’ll have to write your own essay because we simply don’t know your stance on things (What if you don’t think dogs should vote?).
  • Argumentative essays can be written about most any subject, and the ability to write them is a useful skill in one’s academic and professional life.
  • Before submitting the essay, the draft should always be proofread for errors, logical fallacies, and flow.

A disadvantage of absolute holistic rating is that validity and reliability cannot be ensured (Wesdorp, 1981; Charney, 1984). The present study confirmed these previous studies as the absolute holistic rating procedure had a rather low reliability. However, this might be a problem for empirical researchers, but teachers and practitioners may value the quickness and naturalness of this procedure. In addition, we could address the low reliability by giving raters more guidance and training , e.g., in using the whole scoring range.

How to write a good thesis

This function refers to the fact of transmitting objective information about the world around us; that is, it focuses on showing, expressing, communicating, transmitting ideas, etc. Another type of text that falls within this category is the monograph, which is considered by many authors as a first attempt to write a scientific article. essay outline high school Both in the monograph and in the other typologies, the objective is to convince the reader that what is said is true and is done through all the arguments presented. With this type of writing, you need to propose a solution to a problem. First, you must establish a clear problem and then propose a specific solution to that problem.

  • Argumentative essays focus more on concrete empirical data, whereas persuasive essays appeal more to the reader’s emotions.
  • Alluvial plot presenting the comparison of scores assigned through different rating procedures.
  • A good way to test the strength of your thesis is to see if it yields a strong antithesis.
  • Therefore we gave only few instructions to the university students.

An example of this type of texts we see in the letters of readers, in which clearly a person exposes his point of view on a subject. You may have heard it said that all writing is an argument of some kind. Even if you’re writing an informative essay, you still have the job of trying to convince your audience that the information is important. However, there are times you’ll be asked to write an essay that is specifically an argumentative piece.


Which means you should try to achieve your goal in a short time without being able to develop your arguments too much. 3) Make sure every topic sentence relates directly back to your thesis statement. There are not many aspects of the writing process that are as universally dreaded as the outline.

  • While this handout was written with argumentative essays in mind, many of the general ideas behind them apply to a wide range of disciplines.
  • The writer should include background information on a topic that grounds the reader.
  • If you can’t find enough facts to back up your thesis, maybe you shouldn’t argue that point in the first place.
  • Encourage students here to use words and phrases that set up this contrast, for example, however, contrastingly, on the other hand, etc.

Tone and style are more important than you may think, especially if you’re criticizing another person’s perspective. Using an aggressive tone reflects worse on the writer than the target, even if rebutting a despicable point of view. Polish your rough draft, optimize word choice, and restructure your arguments if necessary. Make sure your language is clear and appropriate for the reader, and double-check that you effectively made all your points and rebuttals. Conclusion, where you revisit your thesis in the context of all preceding evidence and succinctly wrap up everything. Introduction, which clearly presents your thesis, sets up the rest of the essay, and maybe even adds a little intrigue. While conclusions can feel extraneous, they’re an opportunity to consider questions related to your argument that are worth further research in some other form or future paper.

Present clear and convincing evidence

You will be able to access training courses in technology, languages, research and investigation, soft skills, practices, and female leadership, which will help you to improve your employability or refocus your career. You’ll find details of all the non-fiction texts studied in primary school in our parents’ guide.

what is argumentative text

Sometimes it can feel like pointless extra work, but it actually is your best safeguard against losing focus in a paper, preserves organization throughout, and just generally makes it easier to sit down and write an essay. Are they a definable group–disinterested observers, opponents of your point of view, etc.? Ask your professor or GSI who you should consider your target audience. If you are not certain of your audience, direct your argument to a general audience.


From the youngest students in elementary to those wizened old owls in high school, a quick class brainstorm will reveal a wealth of juicy topics for them to get their mental teeth into. In this day and age of political correctness, however, be sensitive to the selection of a topic for discussion appropriate to the demographics of your class. While controversial topics can lead to the most lively of discussions, it is best to avoid subjects too close to the bone that what is argumentative text may cause deep rifts in the class dynamic. If in doubt, rather than take suggestions from the class, have some exciting topics pre-prepared for the students to choose from or to vote on. An argumentative essay, also known as a discussion, presents both sides of the argument on a specific topic so the audience can form their own opinion. For students, the discussion often bridges the gap between the speaking and listening learning areas and reading and writing ones.

Knowing this informs all other aspects of writing your essay, including the best structure and format, not to mention which evidence to collect. Some essays need to support more complicated arguments and more definitive rebuttals than normal. In these cases, the three major formats below should serve your argumentative essay for a variety of needs. Your second, third, and fourth paragraphs are your body, where you present your arguments and evidence, as well as refute opposing arguments.

Example #1: Put a Little Science in Your Life by Brian Greene

We will contain a general description of the topic, in which are presented some details and some aspects that can be useful to validate our thesis. This first step is useful to make the reader feel comfortable reading the argumentative text. Example 2 is an argumentative text, on the other hand, because the concrete reasons why those who wrote it loves to go to the movies are indicated. It also contains the information necessary to deny a possible antithesis.

A complete 140 PAGE unit of work on persuasive texts for teachers and students. All authors wrote and reviewed the manuscript and approved its final version.

Argument from concrete evidence

The goal was to intuitively map the quality of the text according to a general impression without predefined criteria, as Myers recommends. Argumentative texts are not only given by Italian teachers, but also by teachers of history, philosophy, science, etc. An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made. One of the best known citation formats for argumentative texts is APA. In this type of argumentative texts with this strategy, the argument includes a statement that the author presents as a general consensus. It is usually used mainly for the defense of an opinion or point of view and lacks questionings or mentions against it due to its character of general recognition.

what is argumentative text

After preliminary research is complete, writers will begin to compose their argumentative essays. An argumentative essay’s position can be defined as a student’s stance on a topic or belief about a subject. An example position is, “I believe that all Americans are entitled to free healthcare.” Positions are developed through the detailed research of preexisting positions on a topic. An argumentative essay position may double down on a preexisting position, explore a niche of a particular position, or address gaps in knowledge or research in existing positions.

Steps to Writing an Argumentative Essay

Each paragraph should focus on either showcasing one piece of supporting evidence or disproving one contradictory opinion. Toulmin model is comprised of an introduction with a claim or thesis, followed by the presentation of data to support the claim.

The body of an argumentative essay explains the argumentative points used to support the overarching theme of the essay. Body paragraphs include a topic sentence that introduces the argumentative point of the paragraph, factual evidence that supports the reasoning of the topic sentence, and an interpretation of the provided evidence.

If you want to know more information and learn about other types of text, we invite you to continue browsing our Literature section, where you will find a lot of information about this artistic field. This position is the belief of the author and is defensible using logic and evidence. Myrtle is a teenager whose parents have set a curfew for her, but she wants to stay out longer.

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